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Working principle of lithium battery

Upload time:2020-12-30| Author:admin

Lithium metal batteries:

Lithium metal batteries generally use manganese dioxide as cathode material, lithium metal or its alloy metal as anode material, and non-aqueous electrolyte solution.


Basic principle of lithium battery



Discharge reaction: Li + MnO2 = LiMnO2


Lithium ion battery:

Lithium ion batteries generally use lithium alloy metal oxide as cathode material, graphite as anode material and non-aqueous electrolyte.

The reaction on the positive electrode of charging is

LiCoO2 = = Li (1-x) coo2 + XLI + + XE - (electron)

The reaction on the negative electrode is

6C+XLi++Xe- = LixC6

Total reaction of rechargeable battery: LiCoO2 + 6C = Li (1-x) coo2 + lixc6


Positive electrode

Cathode material: there are many optional cathode materials, and lithium iron phosphate is widely used in mainstream products. Comparison of different cathode materials:


3.7 V

140 mAh/g


4.0 V

100 mAh/g


3.3 V

100 mAh/g


3.6 V

115 mAh/g

Positive reaction: lithium ion is embedded during discharge, and lithium ion is de embedded during charging. Charging: LiFePO4 → li1-xfepo4 + XLI + + XE - discharging: li1-xfepo4 + XLI + + XE - → LiFePO4.


Negative pole

Anode material: graphite. New research has found that titanate may be a better material.

Negative electrode reaction: Li ion is de intercalated during discharge and Li ion is intercalated during charging.

Charging: XLI + + XE - + 6C → lixc6

During discharge: lixc6 → XLI + + XE - + 6C

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